While typing a text or message, which organs of our body are used? Our hands, eyes and brain, right. So do we know about their composition? Can we have the same in Ayurvedic perspective?

In modern science, we have certain terminologies of the internal body, the components of the body and their composition. Are those components defined in Ayurveda? How deep is the study of Ayurveda? How does it focus on the actions that we take? How does it elaborate the concepts of modern science?

Let’s get answers to the above questions.

Ayurveda has explained various components of the body from macro to micro level. Musculoskeletal components are macroscopic which include muscles, ligaments, cartilages, bones , tendons and other similar connective tissues. These tissues generally bind and support tissues and organs together. In Ayurveda, Peshi, Asthi, Sandhi, Snayu, Kadara along with Jala, Kurcha, Mamasrajju, Sevani, Sanghata, and Simanta are to be considered similar to above structures. Muscles are developed from muscular tissues, Bones are developed from osseous tissues and cartilage is developed from chondroblasts tissues. The elastic and fibrous tissues of ligaments, tendons are the components similar to Mamsa, Asthi, Snayu, Kandara, etc.

By the action of Vayu, Peshi are formed, which are condensed forms of Mamsa Dhatu. It is lengthy and fleshy in appearance. The primal role of Peshi is to give strength and support to the body, protect the internal structures and cover vessels, nerves and bones. It is responsible for the movements of different parts of the body. These Peshi’s can be explained via three terminologies:

1. Visamrinala – It exhibits ramification of veins.

2. Pankaudaka – It can be identified with specific muscles.

3. Bhumi – Place for lamina of muscle tissue.

These three structures are responsible for development, nourishment and maintenance of the muscles.

Further, there are 11 types of Peshi’s:

1. Bhala (broad and large) – These types of Peshi include large and broad muscles like Diaphragm, rectus, trapezius, etc.

2. Pelava (small) – This type of Peshi includes small muscles like platysma, pyramidalis, etc.

3. Sthula (Big) – This type of Peshi includes large, big and heavy muscles like gluteus maximus, pectoralis, etc.

4. Anu (very small) – This type of Peshi includes very small muscles like Stapendius, subclavian, etc.

5. Prithu (flat) – This type of Peshi includes broad and large muscles like Latissimus dorsi, external oblique, etc.

6. Vritta (round) – This type of Peshi includes round muscles like teres major and minor, etc.

7. Hrswa (short) – This type of Peshi includes all short muscles like adductor brevis, extensor hallucis brevis, etc.

8. Dirgha (long) – These types of Peshi include long muscles like longus Colli, longus capitis, sartorius, etc.

9. Mridu (soft) – These types of Peshi include soft muscles like cardiac, stomach muscles, etc.

10. Slakshna (smooth) – These types of Peshi include smooth muscles like lip, labial muscles, etc.

11. Karkasha (rough) – This type of Peshi includes rough muscles like the irregular muscles having serrated borders.

Asthi:

Asthi is composed of Prithvi Mahabhuta, where vayu causes vacant spaces in it. As it is composed of Prithvi Mahabhuta, its main elements are calcium, phosphate, calcium carbonate, calcium fluoride, and magnesium phosphate. Thus, Asthi is responsible for hardness and rigidity of bones. Ashi comprises of three types of cells:

1. Osteoblasts – Responsible for formation of new bones.

2. Osteocytes – Gives stability to bones.

3. Osteoclasts – Prevents the excess growth of bones.

Sandhi :

Sandhi refers to joints, that is the junction of two or more parts in the body. The joints may be between bones (Asthi Sandhi), between muscles (Peshi Sandhi), or joints between vessels (Sira Sandhi). Ayurveda mentions about 210 joints within the body. There are two types of joints:

1. Chestavanta – Movable joints.

2. Diarthrosis – Immovable joints.

Snayu :

Snayu can be correlated with ligaments, tendons and nerve cords of a human body. Snayu is a fibrous structure which exhibits a rope-like structure. It has a complex network known as Pratana Bhavanti in Ayurveda. There are four types of Snayu:

1. Pratanawanti Snayu- Represents ligaments and tendons.

2. Vritta Snayu- Represents the yellow elastic tissue.

3. Prithu Snayu- Represents the flat and broad ribbon shaped tendons and aponeurosis.

4. Susira Snayu- Represents the sprain of joints and ligaments. Its main sign is pain and swelling.

Kandara :

These represent the round shaped tendons within the body. These are present in arms, hands, feet known as nakhaagra praroha. These are present in the neck region and also in the back which can be understood along with the anterior longitudinal ligaments, posterior longitudinal ligaments and ligamentum flavum.

With respect to the above context we can conclude that musculoskeletal components can be observed as Peshi, Asthi, Snayu, Sandhi and Kandara. Every aspect of the body has been explained in Ayurveda with its deep connection with every other aspect of the body. It’s right rooted with its concept of Panchamahabhutas.