Ayurveda, which is also known as “the science of life”, postulates that every human being consists of Tridosha or Prakriti which are fixed for the entire life of an individual. Each individual may have different levels of doshas namely- Vata, Pitta, and Kapha Dosha; leading to diversity. And individuals’ physical, mental, and behavioral traits are based on these Doshas. Individuals in Ayurveda are classified based on the predominance of the doshas.

  1. Individuals with a predominance of Vata dosha change constantly, as they have energetic and creative minds. Whenever Vata dosha is in balance with body and mind, the person is enthusiastic and has the desire to live. On the other hand, when Vata dosha is imbalanced, the individual may feel out of control and have trouble sleeping, poor appetite, etc., and may take time to regain their balance. It contributes to the manifestation of shape, cell division, movement, signaling, and cognition, within the body.

2. The individual having a predominance of Pitta dosha, are assertive. If Pitta dosha is imbalanced, it can trigger pathologies, anger, and irritability due to over-accumulation of fire elements. While in a balanced state, leads to energizing behavior and a positive attitude. It is responsible for metabolism, energy hemostasis, pigmentation, host surveillance, vision, and thermoregulation.

3. The individuals having a predominance of Kapha dosha are very stable and calm. When it is imbalanced, it is responsible for weight gain, fluid retention, resistance to changes, and allergies. While it is in a balanced state leads to peaceful decision-making and a strong gut. It is responsible for the growth and maintenance of structure, storage, and stability.

The development of scientific knowledge and its use for the prediction of different aspects of science form the basis of basic science. While the theory of Tridosha focuses on the science of understanding individuals’ nature or constitution. This theory explains that an
individual’s body is governed by three fundamental principles i.e. Vata, Pitta, and Kapha doshas. Every individual has a unique combination of these doshas and, one or a combination of two may be predominant in an individual. These three doshas are categorized into seven constitutional types;

1. Vataja

2. Pittaja

3. Kaphaja

4. Vata – Pittaja

5. Pitta – Kaphaja

6. Vata – Kaphaja

7.Vata – Pitta – Kaphaja

Connecting this with modern science, the genes of an individual are a unique combination, which makes them different from others. Genes in Ayurveda are known as Bheejabhagavayava, which are hereditary units and are transferred from parents to two offspring. These are responsible for the characterization of the offspring. Bheejabhaga corresponds to the chromosome, which is the sequence of nucleotides and is unique for a particular individual.

There are three branches of science that determine the characteristics of an individual:

1. Genetics- It is the study of heredity and variation of different inherited characteristics of the individual from their parents.

2. Genomics- It is concerned with the structure, function, and mapping of genomes that form a complete set of genetic materials present in an organism.

3. Epigenetics- It is the study of changes in organisms caused by a modification of gene expression. This branch of science describes everything other than DNA that influences the development of an organism. It involves two important concepts:

● Genotype- the genetic constitution of an individual.
● Phenotypes- the observable characteristics of individuals that result from the interaction of their genotype.

Thus, the genetic combination and Prakriti are unique for individuals and do not change throughout their lifetime. If any changes occur during the life period of an individual, it leads to serious illness or Beejangavikriti.

The two concepts that confirm the Prakriti of the individual are Dashavidha-Pariksha and Ashtavidha-Pariksha. NadiPariksha which is performed under Ashtavidha-Pariksha and Dashavidha-Pariksha helps to find the Prakriti of an individual, by identifying its basic composition i.e. combination of three Doshas- Vata, Pitta, and Kapha Dosha. Genetic and genomics study is performed for the same individual, simultaneously. Ashtavidha-Pariksha also includes the study of genes and minutely finding the reason behind individuals’ diseased conditions. Similar techniques in modern medicine are DNA sequencing and gene expression. Thus, a person’s composition of genes is determined, which in turn is used for the detailed study of DNA. This detailed study can be useful to recognize which genes have been altered and are responsible for causing genetic disorders. It is also helpful in designing the right drug or combination of drugs for a genetic defect, thus developing personalized medicine for a particular individual. By knowing the defect in Bheejabhagavayava, Beejadosa is recognized which is dependent on individual Prakriti. Thus, deep analysis of genetic combinations of individuals and Prakriti gives detailed information about the composition of doshas.

If we assume Prakriti as a phenotype and blend it with genotype, a derived concept of genomics the gap between modern science and Ayurveda can be developed, which is helpful in the preparation of personalized medicines. Here, Ayurveda plays an important role as it adopts a
natural way to treat the disease and has lesser side effects when compared to other medical sciences.