Genomics has guided the era of preventive, personalized and predictive medicine where it is hoped that the future would bring a shift from the traditional practice of medicine which is based on symptoms, to an individualized approach which is based on an individual’s genetic makeup. An individual susceptibility to the disease is identified by the genetic variations and also their response to various drugs, however by doing this there is a limited success. Ayurveda which is an ancient Indian system of medicine focuses on personalized approach towards management of health and disease of an individual. According to Ayurveda every individual has its own constitution of the body which is termed as Prakriti. Prakriti determines individuals variability in susceptibility to disease and response to external environment diet and drug. Where contemporary medicine focuses on suppression of a disease, Ayurveda focuses on the prevention and cure of the disease. An integration of Ayurveda and genomics is termed as Ayurgenomics. Thus, this study will provide a deep knowledge of individuals Prakriti type based on Vata, Pitta and Kapha dosha which are identified on the basis of Ayurveda and exhibit differences at a biochemical and genome-wide gene expression level.

Today, if we see the worldwide data there has been a rise in diseases like Diabetes, Asthma, Cardiovascular disorders, Epilepsy, Stroke, Bipolar disorders, etc.. The reason explained is mainly due to the change in lifestyle and inability of the individual to adapt new habits and environments. The diseases like obesity and diabetes are even more in count and are dangerously on the rise. Thus, it becomes necessary to identify the cause of disease and predict the progression and also to produce drugs which may minimize side effects. 

It is observed that several diseases are inherited in the families. From the time when double helical structure of DNA was invented, the cause of diseases have been traced due to change in DNA from one individual to another. Human beings contain 23 pairs of chromosomes and each pair of chromosomes contains 3 billion base pairs of DNA inherited from their parents. Any change in these sequences are called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP). The diseases like hemophilia, beta thalassemia extra are caused due to mutation in a single gene. While other diseases like Diabetes, Asthma, Cardiovascular diseases, etc. are multigenic complex disorders which involve many genes. Thus it can be observed that common diseases are caused due to the cumulative effect of large numbers of variations in the genome which have very small effects individually. Whereas rare diseases exhibit differences in manifestation of disease in different individuals in spite of carrying the same mutation. Most of these diseases require a long-term drug administration which may cause side effects in the body of an individual. Thus, it becomes necessary to identify the root cause of the disease such that the drug doses can be reduced as well as the side effects.

Ayurveda serves as an important form of treatment of the disease. It is a personalized approach in prevention of the disease, and provides a suitable dietary plan, therapeutic, and lifestyle regime which is based on clinical assessment of the individual keeping the Prakriti of that individual in mind. Prakriti of an individual is the consequence of the proportion of tridoshas namely vata, Pitta, and kapha. These tridoshas are determined by genetics and also are influenced by the environment, especially the diet and lifestyle. The Prakriti of an individual is fixed during its birth and remains the same throughout the lifetime. The three doshas are in sync with each other to maintain the homeostasis within the body. The type of body of an individual based on this doses determine the structure of body, skin, eye, hair colour, texture, and composition; at an anatomical level and at physiological level the differences are observed with respect to to bowel habits, disease resistance, heat capacity, tolerance of the weather, metabolism of toxic compounds, tendency to gain weight etc. An imbalance in Doshas leads to disease as it disturbs an individual’s hemostatic state. Ayurveda measures these differences of the dosha in order to cure a disease or its prevention. 

In Ayurvedic terms the Prakriti of an individual from its birth does not change, and is known as Janma Prakriti. Whereas the psychophysiological constitution of an individual changes and is dynamic, and this is known as Deha Prakriti. The Janma Prakriti corresponds to genotype and Deha Prakriti corresponds to the phenotype of an individual. Any disturbance in Deha Prakriti correlates with disorders and disease in the current medical system, which is termed as Vikriti in Ayurveda. 

During the process of DNA expression the two strands of DNA are separated and the knowledge present in a strand is replicated which comes out as a messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). This knowledge which is carried by mRNA is utilized by transfer RNA (tRNA), which lines up the designated amino acid to form unspecified protein. It was proposed that mRNA, tRNA and protein have half features and properties which are similar to Vata, Pitta and Kapha at cellular level. Thus, messenger RNA corresponds to Vata i.e. for transmission of information; tRNA corresponds to Pitta i.e. to bring in transformation; and protein corresponds to Kapha i.e to give structure to the body. 

The combination of Ayurveda and the conventional medical system can lead to better integration of sciences in order to maintain optimal health. The research on the effect of external and internal environment on generic frameworks in Ayurveda, increases the correlation and understanding between the conventional medical system and Ayurveda. Thus, entire understanding of genetics leads to an increase in knowing the process of healing and maintenance of health of an individual.