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“If you cheat on the keto diet, it won’t work, just as in a marriage,” is a famous saying related with the ketogenic diet. The keto diet or ketogenic diet is a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that has numerous health benefits. Research have shown that a conventional ketogenic diet is effective for weight loss, regulating type 2 diabetes, managing cancer, epilepsy, and even Alzheimer’s disease. The foundation of the ketogenic diet is consuming extremely few carbohydrates and replacing them with fat. The elimination of carbs induces a metabolic state known as ketosis. Ketosis is a metabolic condition in which the body uses fat instead of carbs as an energy source. Activating metabolic ketosis inside the body can also be facilitated by intermittent fasting. This paper will focus mostly on the ketogenic diet and its positive effects on diabetes.
A nutritious diet is essential for maintaining a healthy body’s function. According to an ancient proverb, “we are what we eat,” and understanding this is crucial in light of the current epidemic of obesity, which is pushing the majority of people to get diabetes. Diabetes is a disorder characterised by elevated blood glucose levels. This syndrome occurs in two ways: first, when cells become resistant to insulin uptake, and second, when the beta cells in the pancreas are killed by an autoimmune reaction.
With type one and type two diabetes, nutrition is the key to managing high glucose levels and the obesity associated with type 2 DM. In the last two decades, the keto diet or ketogenic diet has gained immense popularity as a diabetic treatment. While 100% of the carbs we consume are turned into glucose by the body, a reduction in carbohydrate consumption is beneficial for reducing blood glucose levels. Diabetes affects around 425 million people globally, according to the International Diabetes Federation, and this number is projected to increase to 630 million by 2045. Additionally, the age range between 20 and 79 is likely to be the most frequently afflicted.
Keto or Ketogenic Diet
Several low-carbohydrate diets, such as the Atkins diet, the zone diet, the paleo diet, and the south beach diet, have emerged in modern society. The term low carb diet refers to a collection of nutritional regimens with varying proportions of carbs, proteins, and lipids. The keto diet has four variations. These categories are described below:
1. Standard Ketogenic Diet (SKD)
The conventional ketogenic diet consists of a very low carbohydrate intake, moderate protein consumption, and a high fat intake. The amount of fat, carbs, and protein required by the body differs from person to person. The Keto diet should include consumption of non-starchy vegetables (green leafy vegetables) due to their high protein, vitamin, and mineral content and extremely low carbohydrate content. This form of ketogenic diet is vital and useful for persons with obesity and diabetes. Moreover, it enhances heart health.
2. Targeted Keto Diet (TKD)
The tailored ketogenic diet is nearly identical to the conventional ketogenic diet. The distinction resides in when carbs are ingested in relation to exercise. It is a compromise between the conventional ketogenic diet and the cyclic ketogenic diet that permits you to consume additional carbohydrates on exercise days.
3. Cyclical Keto Diet (CKD)
The cyclical ketogenic diet is a sort of ketogenic diet that permits carbohydrate reloading on selected days. Like a ketogenic diet for five days and a high-carbohydrate diet for two. The amount of carbohydrates will be more than what is typically permitted on the ketogenic diet.
4. High Protein Keto Diet (HPKD)
This diet, as the name suggests, consists of consuming a significant amount of protein. Around 60% fat, 35% protein, and only 5% carbs. This diet is quite efficient for weight loss.
Ketosis and Ketogenic Diet
After understanding the process of ketosis in the body, the physiology underlying the ketogenic diet’s efficacy can be understood. As previously established, ketosis is a metabolic condition marked by increased amounts of ketone bodies in the blood or urine; it is normally the body’s normal response to low glucose levels. This condition manifests after periods of reduced carbohydrate consumption or fasting. The process begins when the body has access to less than 50 grams of carbs each day. This causes low insulin levels, and the body consequently enters a catabolic condition. The depletion of glycogen storage drives the body to undergo metabolic adjustments. Two metabolic pathways are activated in response to a low carbohydrate diet:
Gluconeogenesis is the endogenous process responsible for glucose production in the body. When glucose availability decreases, gluconeogenesis is unable to keep up with the body’s energy demands; as a result, ketosis begins as an alternative energy source, and glucose is replaced by ketone bodies as the primary source of energy for the body and brain. Certain fundamental ketone molecules, such as beta hydroxybutyrate, build in the body as the ketogenic diet is maintained. This is commonly referred to as nutritional ketosis. This ketosis metabolism continues to operate until there are no carbohydrates available. The energy produced by the body can be utilised by the numerous muscle, tissue, and renal groups. While they are created in modest amounts and are able to cross the blood-brain barrier, these ketone bodies do not hurt the body and provide energy to the brain as well.
When choosing the ketogenic diet, you must recognise that patience and persistence are required to achieve ketosis. If you love your body and your health, all you need to do is believe in yourself and have more conviction.
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